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[Please feel free to contact Dr. Jay Kant Raut, the curator (Email: nfdcurator@myconast.net.np) of this database if any errors or inconsistencies are found ]

This searchable database provides various information on fungal species recorded within the territory of Nepal

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Scleroderma

The genus Scleroderma is cosmopolitan distributing from temperate to tropical regions and forming ectomycorrhizal associations with a wide range of forest trees. The genus was introduced by Persoon in 1801 first time with 11 species. The first S. pistillare L.: Pers. is now placed in Podaxis Desv. The second S. herculeum Pers. is placed in Pisolithus (Alb. & Schwein). The third, S. carcinomarlis L. is considered a synonym of Podaxis pistillaris (L.: Pers.) Morse. and fourth and fifth S. tinctorius Mich.: Pers. and S. arhizus Pers. respectively are considered at present to represent the same species, now placed in Pisolithus. This leaves a remaining six species of which S. aurantiacum Pers. and S. citrinum Pers. are now considered the same (Guzmán, 1970), under the latter name, S. verrucosum (Vaill.) Pers. and S. spadiceum Schaeff.: Pers., with this last species considered a nomen confusum (Guzmán, 1970), S. cepa Pers. and S. cervinum (L.) Pers. S. cervinum undoubtedly is referable to the ascomycetous genus Elaphomyces (Guzmán, 1970). At least 25 species is recognized within the Sclerodermataceae worldwide (Sims & al., 1995). Berkeley (1854, reprint 1969) was first to report six gasteroid fungi including one Scleroderma species (S. nitidum Berk.) in Nepal. Thereafter altogether nine species (S. areolatum Ehrenb (= S. lycoperdoides Schw), S. bovista Fr., S. cepa (Vaill.) Pers.:Pers., S. citrinum Pers.:Pers (= S. vulgare (Horneum) Fr.; S. aurantium Pers.), S. polyrhizum pers. (= S. geaster Fr.), S. sinnamariense Mont., S. texennse Berk. S. nitidum Berk, and S. verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. is reported from different parts of country till now (Adhikari 2012). The characters which have been extensively used to separate the species within the genus are the thickness and the scaliness of the peridium and whether the basidiome is stalked or not, and if the former the structure of the stipe. In the case of S. polyrhizum (J.F. Gmel.) Pers. the shape of the basidiome in old age is also important. These characters at a later date were combined with the size of the basidiospores and their ornamentation and in the latter case whether the ornamentation is composed of isolated spines or warts or forms a reticulum. The spines may be narrow or broadly based or the reticulum complete and very distinctive or incomplete. The principal objective of this study was to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Scleroderma species collected from Kathmandu valley with global ones and contribute to their global biogeographical distribution. There were no prior such phylogenetic investigation among the Scleroderma species from Nepal. It is expected that such studies will lead to the discovery of new species and will be of benefit to the forest ecosystem.